HTML Web Development

How to run an HTML file?

Many modern editors are available to create and modify web pages. But we recommend using simple editors like Notepad (windows) and Textedit (Mac).

How to open Notepad in windows?

Open start and type notepad at search.


Open Start > Programs > Accessories > Notepad.

How to open Textedit in Mac?

press command + space enter Spotlight search will appear and type Textedit in that search.


Open Finder > Applications > TextEdit

For mac, we recommend installing sublime text

Let’s get started!

<header><title> This is title </title> 
Hello world

Copy the above code and past it the Notepad (or) Textedit.

Select File > Save as

Name the file as index.html. all HTML files should be in <filename>.html format.

Double click on the file, or right-click – and choose “Open with” and select your preferred browser.

the output may look like this.


React: How to use Apollo with ‘Union Types’ in GraphQL

Apollo is one of the most popular React library to work with GraphQL APIs. However they don’t have native support when your APIs contain union types.

Let’s look at an example API that contains union types and how we can work with them using Apollo. Assuming you have an API like this:

  search(text: "an") {
    ... on Human {
    ... on Droid {
    ... on Starship {

that returns this response….

  "data": {
    "search": [
        "__typename": "Human",
        "name": "Han Solo",
        "height": 1.8
        "__typename": "Human",
        "name": "Leia Organa",
        "height": 1.5
        "__typename": "Starship",
        "name": "TIE Advanced x1",
        "length": 9.2

If you use the above query via Apollo, you will see this warning messages in the browser console:

You are using the simple (heuristic) fragment matcher, but your queries contain union or interface types. Apollo Client will not be able to accurately map fragments. To make this error go away, use the `IntrospectionFragmentMatcher` as described in the docs:

This is because Apollo by default uses a simple heuristics matching to match the response string into the Response object. We need to do some extra work to tell Apollo how to parse the response with union types.

Apollo has a separate section on their docs about this.

Step 1: Save the information about the fragment types in a separate file:

const fetch = require('node-fetch');
const fs = require('fs');

fetch(`${YOUR_API_HOST}/graphql`, {
  method: 'POST',
  headers: { 'Content-Type': 'application/json' },
  body: JSON.stringify({
    variables: {},
    query: `
        __schema {
          types {
            possibleTypes {
  .then(result => result.json())
  .then(result => {
    // here we're filtering out any type information unrelated to unions or interfaces
    const filteredData =
      type => type.possibleTypes !== null,
    ); = filteredData;
    fs.writeFile('./fragmentTypes.json', JSON.stringify(, err => {
      if (err) {
        console.error('Error writing fragmentTypes file', err);
      } else {
        console.log('Fragment types successfully extracted!');

The JSON file should look something like this:

  "__schema": {
    "types": [
        "kind": "UNION",
        "name": "UnionSearchDetails",
        "possibleTypes": [
            "name": "Human"
            "name": "Droid"
            "name": "Starship"

Step 2: Create fragmentMatcher using the JSON file from the previous step:

import { IntrospectionFragmentMatcher } from 'apollo-cache-inmemory';
import introspectionQueryResultData from './fragmentTypes.json';

const fragmentMatcher = new IntrospectionFragmentMatcher({

Step 3: Now include this fragmentMatcher in cache object and pass it to the Apollo client:

import ApolloClient from 'apollo-client';
import { InMemoryCache } from 'apollo-cache-inmemory';
import { HttpLink } from 'apollo-link-http';

// add fragmentMatcher code from step 2 here

const cache = new InMemoryCache({ fragmentMatcher });

const client = new ApolloClient({
  link: new HttpLink(),

Now all done. The warnings and errors that you noticed previously should have gone away and the Response object from Apollo should contain the correct data.

How to use ‘Union types’ in tests and storybooks?

Now that you have fixed the problem for production code, how can we fix it for your tests or storybooks?

Apollo provides MockedProvider for this purpose. Here is a sample:

<MockedProvider mocks={mocks} addTypename cache={cache}>
     <MyComponenent />

The important change here from the sample code is that addTypename has to be true, to allow Apollo to use the __typename in the response to map the object to the correct type.

Web Development

How to become a web developer

Everyone who wants to become a web developer must know basic HTML, CSS, and Javascript. Our posts will help you to learn Web development from Beginners to Master Level. No prior knowledge required.

  • HTML is the skeleton of the webpage.
  • CSS is the muscle and skin that covers the skeleton and makes it beautiful.
  • Javascript gives the life to the whole system.


  1. Get your hands dirty which conveys that you should start practicing. It is very easy to start your web development. You just need a notepad for writing the code and any browser to run it.
  2. Don’t memorize the code, just understand the usage of the elements in HTML, CSS, and JS (Javascript). It will make you a good developer.

What to do now ?

  • To become a web developer you must master the HTML (Hypertext markup language) first. HTML is the integration of several tags that should be learned first.
  • Second, comes the CSS (cascading style sheet) through which we can change the appearance of the webpage like changing the colors, size, fonts, etc…
  • Javascript is used to write functions to the web page, like testing if the entered email is valid or not while logging into some social media web sites.

In next post we will run our first webpage